Faiss image similarity

Intermediate layers of the discriminator network are used to do image similarity.

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Interactive Image similarity and Visual Search and Retrieval application. Deep learning based image similarity search for product recommendations. Takes 2 images and says how similar they are based on Euclidean distance of feature vectors.

faiss image similarity

Find the original image of the converted image with elastic search. In most places I use term similarity metric for the methods implemented within the package. I use this term within the docs, code and readme. I think it would be better to use Image Quality Assessment IQA term and its different categories full-reference which is what I call similarityreduced-reference and no-reference.

I think it would be more clear for the users what compimg. Dog's breed Classifier and Similar Dogs search engine. A Flask app to classify Dog's type and Find similar dogs. An interactive timeline of paintings in the Swedish Nationalmuseum. An efficient framework for image retrieval using color, texture and edge features. Implementation of a research paper.

Shows similar images based on input image. Querying for semantically similar images using Deep Learning feature vectors. Add a description, image, and links to the image-similarity topic page so that developers can more easily learn about it. Curate this topic. To associate your repository with the image-similarity topic, visit your repo's landing page and select "manage topics. Learn more. Skip to content. Here are 35 public repositories matching this topic Language: All Filter by language.

Sort options. Star Code Issues Pull requests. Updated Jan 6, Python. Updated Aug 4, Python. Updated Jun 17, Python. Updated Mar 10, Python. Updated Apr 10, Jupyter Notebook. Golang library for computing perceptual hashes of images. Updated Feb 2, Go. Updated May 21, Python. Updated Mar 21, Python. Image similarity using Triplet Loss. Updated Jan 28, Jupyter Notebook. Updated Apr 27, Jupyter Notebook. Updated Jun 29, Python.Have you ever trained a Machine Learning model to solve a classification problem?

If yes, what was the number of classes?

Python Computer Vision -- Finding Similar Images With DHASHING

Does the same model work when the number of classes is in order of millions? If the answer is No, this article is for you. Rather, this kind of problems can be formulated in a different way. The idea is to learn distributed embeddings representation of data points in a way that in the high dimensional vector space, contextually similar data points are projected in the near-by region whereas dissimilar data points are projected far away from each other. Triplet Loss architecture helps us to learn distributed embedding by the notion of similarity and dissimilarity.

During prediction time, input data is passed through one network to compute distributed embeddings representation of input data.

In this article, we will discuss how to train Triplet Loss and how to use the trained model during prediction. Training Data Preparation:. There are different ways to define similar and dissimilar images. If you have a dataset having multiple labels as the target class, Then images of the same class can be considered as similar and images across different classes can be considered as dissimilar. I have a dataset of Geological images having 6 different classes.

To generate triplets, first, 2 classes are selected randomly. Then, two images are selected from one class and one image is selected from the other one.

faiss image similarity

Now, images of the same classes are considered as similar, so one of them is used as an anchor and the other one as positive whereas image from the other class is considered a negative image. Likewise, for every batch, a set of n number of triplets are selected. Loss function:. The cost function for Triplet Loss is as follows:.

As a distance metric L2 distance or 1 - cosine similarity can be used. The objective of this function is to keep distance between the anchor and positive smaller than the distance between the anchor and negative. Model Architecture:. The idea is to have 3 identical networks having the same neural net architecture and they should share weights. I repeat all the networks should share underlying weight vectors. The last layer of the Deep Network has D-number of neurons to learn D-dimensional vectors representation.

Anchor, Positive and Negative images are passed through their respective network and during backpropagation weight vectors are updated using shared architecture. During prediction time, any one network is used to compute the vector representation of input data. Following is the tensorboard visualization of the implementation. Model Learning:.

Following is a snapshot of how the model is performing. I have randomly chosen 20 query images from the corpus of test images. And for each query image, plotted top 10 most probable images which are similar in terms of cosine similarity on high dimensional vector space representation.

Triplet Loss architecture helps us to solve several problems having a very high number of classes. Now, given a human face image [as test image] compute the cosine similarity with all 1 million pre-computed vectors and whatever image has the highest similarity will be the selected candidate.

If the test image is nothing but a noise, the highest similarity would be very low and will fall below a threshold parameter. Computing cosine similarity with every image in the corpus would be very computationally inefficient.

At the same time, it might require a huge amount of physical memory to store the vector representation of corpus images. Git repository:. Sign in. Image similarity using Triplet Loss.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. Data Science Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for Data science professionals, Machine Learning specialists, and those interested in learning more about the field.

It only takes a minute to sign up. Please share if there are such real life examples. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top.

Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Asked 7 months ago. Active 7 months ago. Viewed times. Siva Siva 1 1 silver badge 5 5 bronze badges. The page contains examples for storing vectors and searching. What prevents you from applying them to image vectors?

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I originally asked this question on cstheory. Is there an existing algorithm that returns to me a similarity metric between two bitmap images? By "similar", I mean a human would say these two images were altered from the same photograph. For example, the algorithm should say the following 3 images are the same original, position shifted, shrunken.

I don't need to detect warped or flipped images.

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I also don't need to detect if it's the same object in different orientations. I would like to use this algorithm to prevent spam on my website. I noticed that the spammers are too lazy to change their spam images. It's not limited to faces.

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I already know there's already many great facial recognition algorithms out there. The spam image could be anything from a URL to a soccer field to a naked body. There is a discussion of image similarity algorithms at stack overflow. Since you don't need to detect warped or flipped images, the histogram approach may be sufficient providing the image crop isn't too severe. You can use existing deep learning architectures like VGG to generate features from images and then use a similarity metric like cosine similarity to see if two images are essentially the same.

The whole pipeline is pretty easy to set up and you do not need to understand the neural network architecture you can just treat it like a black box. Also, these features are pretty generic and can be applied to find similarity between any kind of objects, not just faces. Here are a couple of blogs that walk you through the process.

Amazon has a new API called Rekognition which allows you to compare two images for facial similarity. The api returns a similarity percentage for each face with one another and the bounding boxes for each face. Rekognition also includes an api for both Facial Analysis returning the gender, approximate age, and other relevant facial details and Object Scene Detection returning tags of objects that are within in image.

If you just want image similarity that's one thing, but facial similarity is quite another. Two very different individuals could appear in the same background and an analysis of image similarity show them to be the same while the same person could be shot in two different settings and the similarity analysis show them to be different.

If you need to do facial analysis you should search for algorithms specific to that. Calculating relative eye, nose and mouth size and position is often done in this kind of analysis. Robust Hash Functions do that. But there's still a lot of research going on in that domain. I'm not sure if there are already usable prototypes. First convert the images to yuvp using ffmpeg and then run the test.

Note the score difference. This can be used to tell if the image is similar or different. For this sample they both look quite similiar One of the great technique to calculate similarity of images is " mean structural similarity ". Learn more.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.

If nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again. If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. Faiss is a library for efficient similarity search and clustering of dense vectors. It contains algorithms that search in sets of vectors of any size, up to ones that possibly do not fit in RAM.

It also contains supporting code for evaluation and parameter tuning. Some of the most useful algorithms are implemented on the GPU.

It is developed by Facebook AI Research. NEW: version 1. Faiss contains several methods for similarity search. It assumes that the instances are represented as vectors and are identified by an integer, and that the vectors can be compared with L2 Euclidean distances or dot products. Vectors that are similar to a query vector are those that have the lowest L2 distance or the highest dot product with the query vector.

It also supports cosine similarity, since this is a dot product on normalized vectors.

faiss image similarity

Most of the methods, like those based on binary vectors and compact quantization codes, solely use a compressed representation of the vectors and do not require to keep the original vectors. This generally comes at the cost of a less precise search but these methods can scale to billions of vectors in main memory on a single server. Results will be faster however if both input and output remain resident on the GPU.

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Both single and multi-GPU usage is supported. It compiles with a Makefile and can be packaged in a docker image. Some index types are simple baselines, such as exact search. Most of the available indexing structures correspond to various trade-offs with respect to. The optional GPU implementation provides what is likely as of March the fastest exact and approximate compressed-domain nearest neighbor search implementation for high-dimensional vectors, fastest Lloyd's k-means, and fastest small k-selection algorithm known.

The implementation is detailed here. We monitor the issues page of the repository. You can report bugs, ask questions, etc.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Have a question about this project? Sign up for a free GitHub account to open an issue and contact its maintainers and the community.

Already on GitHub? Sign in to your account. Please share if there are such real life examples. Faiss is a vector indexing library. How to compute embeddings or descriptors from images is not part of the library. Well if you are looking for implementation with images.

This might help you. Skip to content. Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Sign up. New issue. Jump to bottom. Labels out-of-scope. Copy link Quote reply. This comment has been minimized. Sign in to view. Sign up for free to join this conversation on GitHub.This month, we released Facebook AI Similarity Search Faissa library that allows us to quickly search for multimedia documents that are similar to each other — a challenge where traditional query search engines fall short.

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This lets us break some records, including the first k-nearest-neighbor graph constructed on 1 billion high-dimensional vectors. Traditional databases are made up of structured tables containing symbolic information.

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For example, an image collection would be represented as a table with one row per indexed photo. Each row contains information such as an image identifier and descriptive text. Rows can be linked to entries from other tables as well, such as an image with people in it being linked to a table of names. AI tools, like text embedding word2vec or convolutional neural net CNN descriptors trained with deep learning, generate high-dimensional vectors.

Yet traditional databases that can be queried with SQL are not adapted to these new representations. First, the huge inflow of new multimedia items creates billions of vectors. Second, and more importantly, finding similar entries means finding similar high-dimensional vectors, which is inefficient if not impossible with standard query languages.

This is where similarity search kicks in. The vector representation for images is designed to produce similar vectors for similar images, where similar vectors are defined as those that are nearby in Euclidean space.

faiss image similarity

Another application for vector representation is classification. Imagine you need a classifier that determines which images in a collection represent a daisy. Training the classifier is a well-known process: The algorithm takes as input images of daisies and images of non-daisies cars, sheep, roses, cornflowers. If the classifier is linear, it outputs a classification vector whose property is that its dot product with the image vector reflects how likely it is that the image contains a daisy.

Then the dot product can be computed with all entries in the collection and the images with the highest values are returned. An added challenge is that we want to do these operations on a large scale, on billions of vectors. Other packages are research artifacts produced for a published paper to demonstrate performance in specific settings.

With Faiss, we introduce a library that addresses the limitations mentioned above. Among its advantages:. We have a reference brute-force algorithm that computes all the similarities — exactly and exhaustively — and returns the list of most similar elements. Note that implementing the brute-force algorithm efficiently is not obvious, and it often feeds into the performance of other components.

Accelerating the search involves some pre-processing of the data set, an operation that we call indexing. We usually evaluate the trade-off between speed and accuracy for a fixed memory usage. Many indexing libraries exist for around 1 million vectors, which we call small scale. For example, nmslib contains very efficient algorithms for this.

Precision is evaluated on Deep1Ba collection of 1 billion images. Each image has been processed by a convolutional neural net CNNand one of the activation maps of the CNN is kept as an image descriptor. These vectors can be compared with Euclidean distances to quantify how similar the images are. Deep1B comes with a small collection of query images, and the ground-truth similarity search results are provided from a brute-force algorithm on these images.

Therefore, if we run a search algorithm we can evaluate the 1-recall 1 of the result. This memory constraint guides our choice of an indexing method and parameters. Once the index type is chosen, indexing can begin. The algorithm processes the 1 billion vectors and puts them into an index.

When the index is ready, a set of search-time parameters can be set to adjust the method.

Image similarity using Triplet Loss

For the sake of evaluation, we perform searches in a single thread. Here, we need to optimize the trade-off between accuracy and search time, since memory usage is fixed. This means, for example, being able to set parameters that give a 1-recall 1 of 40 percent in the least possible search time. Fortunately, Faiss comes with an automatic tuning mechanism that scans the space of parameters and collects the ones that provide the best operating points; that is, the best possible search time given some accuracy, and vice versa.